Tag Archives: child brides
The crisis in Syria has killed thousands, displaced millions and like many conflicts before it, increased the rate of child marriage dramatically, according to a disturbing study recently released by Save the Children.
The study, titled Too Young to Wed, focuses on the tragic outcomes of young Syrian girls who have fled their homeland for the Za’atari refugee camp in Jordan. There, lack of economic opportunity and fear that their unmarried daughters are more likely to be exposed to sexual harassment have convinced many parents to marry their girls off at very young ages.
Among Jordan’s Syrian refugee community, one in four girls was married under the age of 18 in 2013 — double the rate that existed in pre-war Syria, according to the report. Trends show that nearly half of those girls were forced to marry men at least 10 years older than them.
At 12 pages, the report itself is short but alarming. It features testimony from child brides and their families as well as pictures that girls in the Za’atari refugee camp were encouraged to draw after attending workshops designed to teach them about the dangers of child marriage. It also includes recommendations for halting the trend.
To see 15 more pictures, check out this moving post by BuzzFeed’s Richard James.
Yemen is likely to vote on a comprehensive ‘Child Rights Act’ over the coming months, which would ban both child marriage and female genital mutilation (FGM).
By Omar J. Robles, 2y2w Contributor
The United Nations has laid out several frameworks, conventions and resolutions that establish international law and human rights. Some are general, outlining principles that cover all people while leaving for interpretation the details. Some are specific, linking human rights principles to a particular population or issue.
Getting international bodies to do the latter is very often a key goal for advocacy groups and individuals who seek equality and justice. International consensus can fuel national efforts to ensure that all people are able to realize their human rights. Put another way, getting countries to sign UN conventions and resolutions promotes accountability, even if it doesn’t guarantee it.
For the first time ever, we can now add child marriage to the list: more than 100 countries have explicitly stated that child marriage is a human rights violation that must be stopped.
Last month, the UN Human Rights Council — the leading UN body responsible for the promotion and protection of human rights around the world — adopted the first-ever UN resolution on child, early and forced marriage. The move came just two weeks before the second annual International Day of the Girl Child, celebrated this Friday, Oct. 11. A diverse group of 107 countries affirmed that the choice to marry is an adult decision that should be informed and made freely without fear, coercion or undue pressure.
Among those countries that signed the resolution are several that have a relatively high prevalence of child marriage: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Chad, Guatemala, Honduras and Yemen.
Previously, UN Agencies, advocacy groups and girls themselves had relied on — and still will — other human rights instruments that reference child marriage, within the context of broader frameworks.
For example, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) both outlawed child marriage. Additionally, at the International Conference on Population and Development (1994), 197 countries adopted the ICPD Programme of Action, which called on countries to eliminate child marriage and to enforce laws that ensure free and full consent.
Even though policies on paper do not directly translate into changes on the ground, last month’s global consensus marks a shift in awareness about child marriage and the priority attention it deserves. For example, the new UN resolution stresses the need to include child, early and forced marriage in the post-2015 international development agenda.
Progress at international fora, however, cannot overshadow the ongoing struggles that child brides and young girls vulnerable to marriage still face. Decades have passed since countries first signed human rights documents that affirm child marriage is a violation of girls’ universal human rights. During this time, millions of girls have married, especially in poor and rural parts of countries in the developing world.
As UN-Secretary General Ban Ki-moon asserted in his recent annual report to the UN General Assembly, “The practice of child marriage must be ended everywhere.” Advocates agree, including young girls and child brides who live in countries that did not sign the UN resolution last month. They’ve agreed for years.
It’s now time to move beyond consensus to action; we know the solutions.
Action needed in South Sudan: Two years after its independence, nearly half of all girls marry as children
By Omar J. Robles, 2y2w Contributor
More than two years after the festive atmosphere and the international attention have subsided, a more comprehensive response to child marriage must become an explicit priority for South Sudan to achieve its development goals.
Eight years have passed since South Sudan gained its regional autonomy, and two years have passed since the nation gained its independence in a referendum vote. Policymakers and citizens rightfully celebrated the omnipresent hope for a better future at ceremonies following the end of a 22-year civil war in January 2005 and the founding of a new nation in July 2011.
Fulfilling this hope for a better future—and the autonomy and independence upon which it rests—depends considerably on the nation’s ability to ensure that the next generation of South Sudan’s girls is able to realize its full potential. South Sudan is currently failing nearly half of them: national surveys estimate that 48 percent of girls marry as children.[i]
The newly formed government has recognized that girls matter; it has adopted an array of measures that make gender equality and women’s empowerment cornerstones of its national agenda. The next step is to transfer the initial foray of legal and policy reforms into actions that can have real impacts in girls’ lives—actions that can help ensure that South Sudan’s next generation of young women are able to realize their rights.
To begin, South Sudan should enforce South Sudan’s Child Act 2008, which sets the minimum age of marriage at 18 years. Legislation is important, but alone insufficient. In May 2013, the Minister of Gender and Child Affairs, Agnes Kwaje Losuba, admitted that the government does not enforce the legislation. [ii] To be effective, laws and policies require adequate resources, training and accountability mechanisms. The minister’s statement underscores the limited political commitment for ending child marriage among leaders in South Sudan.
A comprehensive response to end child marriage must also address the underlying factors that make young girls vulnerable to child marriage.
While there is no panacea approach to prevention, ensuring that girls complete primary and secondary education is a critical starting point: when a girl in the developing world receives seven or more years of education, she marries on average four years later.
Education is also an investment associated with significant returns for generations to come. In many countries, each additional year of formal education completed by a mother translates into her children remaining in school for up to an additional one-half year. Thus when girls are empowered with knowledge and skills, they are considerably more likely to send their children to school and help break the intergenerational chain of poverty that impedes individual progress and national development.
In South Sudan, where girls respectively make up only 39 percent and 30 percent of students in primary and secondary school, the government has to complement a stronger legal, policy and regulatory framework with community-focused interventions that shift perceptions around the expectations, roles and aspirations for girls. Community-based interventions in several countries have already demonstrated that parents—instead of seeing their daughters as tradable assets whose virginity increases their value—can come to view them as individuals worthy of obtaining the social, economic and health benefits that are associated with educational achievement.
Political leaders will have to tackle head-on the resistance from community leaders who champion customary laws, which are rooted in traditions that often infringe on the rights of women and girls. In South Sudan—where customary laws sidestep statutory laws and govern marriage, dowries and inheritance laws[iii]—the government must ensure that child marriage is no longer perpetuated in the name of tradition and culture.
Many communities in South Sudan view marriage as being in the best interests of girls and their families. Child marriage is seen as protecting girls from pre-marital sex and pregnancy before marriage, avoiding dishonor to the child and her family. The traditional practice of transferring wealth through the payment of dowries is a key way for families to access much-needed resources (e.g., cattle, money and other gifts). Customary practices attach great social and economic importance to dowry payment, as well as a husband’s rights over his wife. Under many South Sudanese customary law systems, divorce is not widely accepted and only possible when the dowry is repaid to the husband’s family—a requirement that can make it difficult to get a divorce since the dowry is often shared amongst the bride’s extended family.
Arguments that assert customs and traditions cannot justify human rights violations. Culture and tradition offer meaning and identity to many people, yet these same socially constructed norms can pose significant barriers to the empowerment of women and girls in particular—to their education, to sexual and reproductive health, to their livelihoods, and to their opportunities to realize their human potential, free from coercion, abuse or violence.
South Sudan has overcome many hurdles, and tensions across and within its borders still give pause. However, as the nation presses ahead toward fulfilling the hope for an autonomous, independent and better future, it cannot ignore the harmful practice that undermines that goal. When the 55-member Constitutional Review Commission that President Salva Kiir appointed in 2012 to assess and improve the country’s current transitional constitution reports its findings in December 2013, the commission should make this point explicit. It is within its purview to strengthen the role and jurisdiction of statutory laws (over customary laws) in alignment with international human rights standards.
[i] UNICEF (2013). Childinfo: Monitoring the Situation of Women and Children. “Percentage of women aged 20–24 who were first married/in union before the age of 18.”
[ii] IPS News (2013). “Marrying Off South Sudan’s Girls for Cows.”
[iii] HRW (2013). “South Sudan: End Widespread Child Marriage.” New York: Human Rights Watch
Debasmita Dasgupta, who goes by Smita, has been drawing all of her life. These days, the 33-year-old, who was born and raised in India, lives in Singapore, where she works as a development communications manager. But art is still a huge part of her life. She’s illustrated several children’s books and recently launched an illustrated series called “mY FaTHer,” where she uses her skills as an artist to tell the stories of fathers who defend the rights of their children –- including those who stand against child marriage.
Smita was kind enough to take a break from her busy life and tell us a little about her work: her creative process, what inspires her and ultimately, the impact she hopes her art will have.
Where were you born and raised? Can you tell us a little bit about your family (parents, siblings, etc.)?
I was born and raised in Kolkata, India, in a middle-class family. Being the only child, I had a very close bond with my parents, especially my father. “Life is all about knowing oneself and respecting others,” he would tell me. This ideal became the cornerstone of my philosophy.
Where do you live now and how long have you been living there?
I have been living and working in Singapore for the past three years.
When did you start drawing and why?
Drawing started as a hobby as soon as I learnt to hold a pencil and crayons. I was (still am) an avid reader of comic books. My mind would soak up all the details in their illustrations. As I grew up, I turned this love into a passion, illustrating for myself and for close friends. During my college years, I came across many artists, painters whose work influenced me a lot. And even though I studied science as a major, I never ceased to illustrate, sometimes even at the cost of my studies. I could doodle tirelessly for hours. It was only in 2008 that I decided to turn this passion into a profession when I got a chance to publish my first children’s picture book, “The Friday Fair” (2010) with KATHA. There was no turning back afterwards. I had taken the plunge into a vast ocean where every wave is a new inspiration. And the discoveries are endless.
Do you earn your living creating art? Or do you work in a separate field and pursue your art on the side?
I have a full-time career as a development communications manager — a job I am highly passionate about. But it doesn’t get my spirits soaring as illustrating does. I continue to illustrate for my personal ventures — those meaningful outlets I have created to share my art with the rest of the world. I also take up illustration assignments for non-profits, particularly with organizations working on women and child rights.
Have your illustrations always had a family focus? Where do you draw your inspirations from?
My illustrations always focus on positive relationships. Relationships are as abundant as the nature around us. They can be human-to-human or human-to-nature or human-to-animal or animal-to-animal. I have explored them all in my illustrations, a young girl making lifelong friends with a Gulmohar tree, or two giraffes enjoying an evening together.
I draw inspirations from my memories. They are often very accurate, yet fuzzy enough to offer new meanings and alterations. Sometimes works from other illustrators inspire me, not just through their art but their ideologies as expressed through their life. I enjoy poetry — it is my soul-food. A good poem evokes a strong memory and I find myself drawing the next moment. Actors, filmmakers, dancers and musicians are my other inspirations. Art in all its multitudes inspires me.
What kinds of media do you use in creating your illustrations (pencil, pen, paint, computer graphics software, etc.)? How long does it generally take you to go from idea to finished product?
All my illustrations are hand-drawn and digitally colored, with very few exceptions. I use pencil and pen to draw on paper and I scan the image to color it. My artistic style is child centric. Every image has a strong presence of child/children. There is a lot of emphasis on the expression of the eyes as I feel eyes are the most expressive part of our bodies.
Once I like an idea, the concept building does not take much time. I start my work with a clear concept in my mind, otherwise I cannot convince myself to draw at all. I leave very little invention to my hands; they are my tool to bring my inner vision to reality. Once the sketch is ready, the production time for coloring depends on the content at hand. It can vary anything from a few hours to a few days.
You have a series that focuses on relationships between fathers and their daughters. When did you start working on that series? Where did the idea for those illustrations come from?
It all started from a TED Talk by an Afghani woman, Shabana Basij-Rasikh. She shared the story of how her father helped her to continue with her studies against all odds during the Taliban regime. She quoted her father, “We will let nothing stop your education, even if we have to sell our blood for it.”
I was completely bowled over by Shabana’s story. It reminded me of my own father’s ironclad adherence to his ideals. I thought, there must be many other fathers, in different corners of the world, who fearlessly stand for the rights of their children. Why aren’t enough people talking about these stories? There should be a way to showcase and share such untold stories. Every positive story can create another.
Then the question arose — how do I communicate such stories? I didn’t have to look any further than my study table. My answer was right in front, shining in all glory and truth. My illustrations. The idea came like a bolt of lightning, but it changed me forever. Within a week, I started the “mY FaTHer” illustrated series dedicated to fathers who fight for child rights.
Every child-related issue needs the direct involvement of children. We need to hear from them with a very open mind and heart to faithfully address such issues. That’s why fathers and daughters are equal owners of “mY FaTHer” illustrations. The picture stories are not just about how fathers stand for their children but also about how the children imagine them to stand for them.
Currently “mY FaTHer” illustrations is an online initiative in the form of a Facebook page, through which I am trying to reach out to as many people as possible.
I would encourage all the readers to join the page and help me spread the word.
Can you tell us a little about your relationship with your own father? How important is a father in the life of his daughter?
My father is my ideal. He is a self-made man of strong principles. He is strong where many men are soft and soft where many are strong. We have no barrier, no secrets, and although we argue over many things, his eyes pop up when listening to my opinions. He is a deep listener, trying to engage with people, and always telling them to follow their heart. He wanted me to follow the truth, but to find it first.
Obviously our organization is focused on ending child marriage. What role do you think fathers can play in bringing an end to that practice?
Strong patriarchal societies are the breeding ground of child marriages. Societies are painfully tolerant towards any violation of the rights of a girl child, simply because it serves a longstanding custom. We have to gather the courage to look beyond customs. How else did we progress from stone age to information age, if not by challenging the customs? We often criticize the men, particularly the fathers, who force their daughters to marry prematurely. But this merely shifts the blame, while the problem remains intact.
Yes, we need to criticize their actions, but I feel only criticism won’t help to better the situation. Most of the time you commit a wrong thinking it is right until you see a peer/fellow doing something different despite living under similar socio-economic conditions. And I think that’s where “mY FaTHer” illustrations stand. It gives you the courage to brave the odds by knowing the stories of others like you. As a father, you can get motivated when you come to know about someone else in your own shoes right in your neighborhood who is fighting against child marriage. His action can trigger a positive chain reaction in you. And “mY FaTHer” illustrations is trying to keep that positive effect alive.
What sort of response have you gotten from people who have seen those pictures? Was it the response you expected?
I am very grateful to all those individuals and organizations who are supporting “mY FaTHer” illustrations. My one-woman initiative is only 2.5 months old and it has already received more than 350 followers on Facebook as well as support and appreciation from more than 10 international organizations. With every “like” on my Facebook page, and every word of appreciation I get in my inbox, I feel more driven towards the cause. These single drops of inspiration mean an ocean full of positive waves that keep me moving on.
What is your ultimate goal as an artist? Where do you think your work can have the greatest impact?
Creating good art is a journey: It starts with me and ends with us. My ultimate goal as an artist is to create art that can drain out your negative energies and help you take positive actions in life. My style is simplistic but the messages are layered. It’s exactly how I see my life, simple yet folded with meanings.
Facebook Link: https://www.facebook.com/myfatherIllustrations
Blog Link: http://debasmitaillustrations.wordpress.com/